Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

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"The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was called for by the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000. Initiated in 2001, the objective of the MA was to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and the scientific basis for action needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. The MA has involved the work of more than 1,360 experts worldwide. Their findings, contained in five technical volumes and six synthesis reports, provide a state-of-the-art scientific appraisal of the condition and trends in the world’s ecosystems and the services they provide (such as clean water, food, forest products, flood control, and natural resources) and the options to restore, conserve or enhance the sustainable use of ecosystems." [1]


Accessed November 2014: [2]

Board Co-Chairs

  • A.H. Zakri, Director, Institute of Advanced Studies, United Nations University
  • Robert Watson, Chief Scientist and Senior Advisor ESSD, World Bank

Institutional Representatives

Members At-Large

  • Fernando Almeida, Executive President, Business Council for Sustainable Development, Brazil
  • Phoebe Barnard, Global Invasive Species Programme, National Botanical Institute, South Africa
  • Gordana Beltram, Undersecretary, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Slovenia
  • Delmar Blasco, Former Secretary General, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Spain
  • Antony Burgmans, Chairman, Unilever N.V., The Netherlands
  • Esther Camac, Asociación Ixä Ca Vaá de Desarrollo e Información Indigena, Costa Rica
  • Angela Cropper, President, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad & Tobago
  • Partha Dasgupta, Professor, Faculty of Economics and Politics, University of Cambridge, UK
  • José María Figueres, Managing Director, Center for Global Agenda, World Economic Forum, Switzerland
  • Fred Fortier, Indigenous Peoples' Biodiversity Information Network, Canada
  • Mohammed Hassan, Executive Director, Third World Academy of Sciences, Italy
  • Jonathan Lash, President, World Resources Institute, USA
  • Wangari Maathai, Vice Minister for Environment, Kenya
  • Paul Maro, Professor, Department of Geography, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • Harold Mooney, Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, USA
  • Marina Motovilova, Professor, Faculty of Geography, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
  • M.K. Prasad, Environment Centre of the Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, India
  • Walter V. Reid, Director, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (ex officio), Malaysia and USA
  • Henry Schacht, Past Chairman of the Board, Lucent Technologies, USA
  • Peter Johan Schei, Director, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway
  • Ismail Serageldin, President, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
  • David Suzuki, Chair, David Suzuki Foundation, Canada
  • M.S. Swaminathan, Chairman MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, India
  • José Galízia Tundisi, President, International Institute of Ecology, Brazil
  • Axel Wenblad, Vice President Environmental Affairs, Skanska AB, Sweden
  • Xu Guanhua, Minister, Ministry of Science and Technology, China
  • Muhammad Yunus, Managing Director, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh

Assessment Panel

Accessed November 2014: [3]


Panel Members



Resources and articles

Related Sourcewatch


  1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment About, organizational web page, accessed November 28, 2014.
  2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board, organizational web page, accessed November 28, 2014.
  3. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Panel, organizational web page, accessed November 28, 2014.