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Virginiamycin is a pharmaceutical given to chickens (excluding hens laying eggs for human consumption), turkeys, beef cattle, and swine for treatment of disease and for increased weight gain and feed efficiency.[1] It is available over the counter and is added to animal feed. Uses in individual species include:[2]

  • Cattle: For weight gain and for "reduction of incidence of liver abscesses in cattle fed in confinement for slaughter."
  • Swine (excluding breeding swine over 120 lbs): For increased weight gain and for swine dysentery.
  • Chickens (broilers): For increased weight gain, and for prevention of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens susceptible to virginiamycin in broiler chickens.
  • Turkeys: For increased weight gain

Brand names and Manufacturers

Virginiamycin is sold under the following brands, which are listed here by manufacturer, accompanied by their FDA New Animal Drug Application (NADA) numbers:[3]

  • Alpharma, Inc.: Virginiamycin Type A Medicated Article (133-334); Avatec® / Stafac® (141-150)
  • Huvepharma AD: Stafac® / Stenorol® (139-473); Clinacox™ / Stafac® (141-090); BMD® / Clinacox™ (141-153); Clinacox™ / Flavomycin® (141-158); Sacox® / Stafac® (200-092); 3-Nitro® / Sacox® / Stafac® (200-094)
  • Phibro Animal Health: Stafac® 500 (091-467); Stafac® (091-513); 3-Nitro® / Stafac® / Coban® (120-724); Coban® / Stafac® (122-481); Avatec® / Stafac® (122-608); Amprol HI-E® / Stafac® (122-822); Bio-Cox® / Stafac® 10 Type A Medicated Article, Bio-Cox® / Stafac® 20 Type A Medicated Article, Bio-Cox® / Stafac® 50 Type A Medicated Article, and Bio-Cox® / Stafac® 500 Type A Medicated Article (138-828); 3-Nitro® / Bio-Cox® / Stafac® Type A Medicated Articles (138-953); V-Max™ and V-Max™ M (140-998); Aviax™ / Stafac® (141-114); Aviax™ / Stafac® / Roxarsone (141-226); Aviax™ II plus Stafac® (141-289)

As A Pollutant

In Drinking Water

An Associated Press investigation found that, of 62 metropolitan areas in the U.S., only 28 tested for pharmaceuticals, and 24 found pharmaceuticals in the drinking water when they tested it.[4] Of those tested, Columbus, OH and Philadelphia both tested positive for virginiamycin.[5]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles


  1. Animal Feed @ FDA, FDA, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  2. Animal Feed @ FDA, FDA, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  3. Animal Drugs @ FDA, FDA, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  4. AN AP INVESTIGATION : Pharmaceuticals Found in Drinking Water, Associated Press, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  5. Pharmawater-Metros-By-Results, Associated Press, Accessed September 3, 2010.

External resources

External articles